The concept of scale is about the way that geographical phenomena and problems can be examined at different spatial levels. The concept of sustainability is about the capacity of the environment to continue to support our lives and the lives of other living creatures into the future. The concept of change is about explaining geographical phenomena by investigating how they have developed over time. View the concepts continuum. The personal information captured in this form is used for the sole purpose of sharing this page.
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ISBN 13: 9780415339056
In , in the context of reforms hastily advanced by the dictatorial regime installed in , geography was separated from history and a 4-year degree program in geographical sciences was set up to include subjects from both the college of humanities and the college of sciences. Vidal de la Blanche also had a noteworthy influence on Orlando Ribeiro and the theoretical and epistemological orientations of the so-called Lisbon School. Interestingly, it was from this context that the best-known name in modern Portuguese, Orlando Ribeiro Figure 2 , that geography emerged.
Ribeiro had a solid grounding in the humanities and natural sciences thanks to his contacts with the French school, German geographers, and, though to a lesser extent, British and American geographers. Figure 2. Orlando Ribeiro — CEG came to play an important role in the production of geographical knowledge of the Portuguese colonies, from Cape Verde to Timor, as it received support from the Ministries of Overseas Possessions and Education.
In this sense, we can speak of a certain continuity in geography's position in the affirmation of Portugal as a colonial power, which stems back to the Sociedade de Geografia Portuguese Geographical Society that was established in and remained relevant through academic geographical research until The regime sought to modernize the country, emphasizing the importance of education, economic development, and nationalism. Geography proved clearly highly instrumental in this context at three different levels: ideology via education; technology via contributions of geographical engineering; and physical geography via the greater acquisition of knowledge about resources and its ability to lend legitimacy to political measures geared toward territorial programs and interventions.
As some authors have noted, it was in this period that the modern device of state became duly territorialized. These three institutions still exist today, having survived various political, social, and cultural transformations. At the beginning, they received decisive support from European professors, among them were the French professors Pierre Deffontaines and Pierre Monbeig, who advanced the foundations of modern human geography in Brazil following the French masters Vidal de la Blanche and Jean Brunhes.
But it is these same characteristics that also render particularly difficult and unstable any attempt to trace the perimeters of what, at least in some Western academic circles, is considered as one of the most relevant intellectual developments of the late twentieth century. Human geography, especially in the English-speaking world, was deeply marked by this revolutionary set of events. Geography, as a discipline that had always been concerned with the ways in which the world and its spatial relations were represented, could not exempt itself from this radical questioning of the very principles that guided the production of modern Western knowledge.
In the last decades, the postmodern and postmodern geography however we may define it have become an established presence in the discipline. By and large, the postmodern wave in geography is recognized as a phase — particularly intense between the mids and the mids, but which also retained part of its vibrancy in the years that followed — that contributed in a fundamental way to the intellectual atmosphere of the disciplinary debates of those years; a phase during which human geography gained, in many ways, newfound prominence within the social sciences.
In other words, any attempt at defining the state of the art of postmodern geography is doomed to fail; if only for the very fact that the introduction of the postmodern to geography — as to other fields of enquiry — has implied the breaking down of any paradigmatic logic and skepticism toward any linear reconstruction of the history of the discipline. On the contrary, its objective can only be that of identifying, in a partial and entirely subjective fashion, some of the intellectual trajectories that marked one of the most important moments in recent English-language geographical debates, together with the cultural and intellectual atmosphere that made them possible.
Equally, there has always been a lack of consensus regarding what the postmodern really consists of, and, as a consequence, its historical roots and relative evolution. Some commentators have envisaged the postmodern as enabling new forms of cultural and political resistance; conversely, others have seen within it the very end to any form of progressive politics and a tacit legitimation of the status quo.
Beaverstock, in International Encyclopedia of Human Geography , In , he was awarded the personal title of Professor, followed by several distinguished awards, including a Fellowship of the Swedish Collegium for Advance Study in the Social Sciences , the Victoria Medal of the Royal Geographical Society with the Institute of British Geographers , and an honorary doctorate of philosophy from the University of Uppsala, Sweden From the mids onwards, with the publication of Global Shift : Industrial Change in a Turbulent World , Dicken can be credited for putting economic globalization firmly on the map in geographical thought.
His influence has subsequently become apparent in studies of economic and employment change in major global industries such as automobiles, electronics, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and logistics ; industrial restructuring and organizational behavior in transnational corporations through the analysis of foreign direct investment flows and business strategy; and global production networks and territorial redevelopment.
Summarizing, Yeung and Peck suggest that there are four very distinctive contributions that Dicken has made to the study of human and economic geography, and globalization. The first of these concerns firm spatial decision making — externalization of control and regional development.
Dicken began to put the action of the firm and its externalities of control under the microscope to explain the geography of location and regional development. Dicken's work became an exemplary for studying the behavior of multinational and transnational corporations in the context of the world economy recession of the post era, where externalities of control and the branch plant phenomenon were dominant structures of economics in the rapidly changing industrial world.
Since , there have been a further four editions of this book published , , , and Global Shift remains one of the key textbooks in economic geography. The edition introduces and discusses the economic geographies of industrial change in the world since the end of World War II from the global scale perspective. Dicken argued that the global shifts that occurred in many industrial sectors of the world economy were produced by three significant intertwining processes, namely: the rapid growth, proliferation, internationalization, and geoeconomic power of transnational corporations worldwide; the changing role of national government through patterns of international trade, investment, regional development policies, and macroeconomics; and the impact which informational and communication technologies have had on transport e.
Global Shift as a textbook has been of paramount importance for students of economic geography. It explained the processes of international restructuring through the actor of the transnational corporation in several key sectors of the world economy: textiles and clothing; iron and steel; motor vehicles; and electronics.
The four subsequent editions of Global Shift have added new sectoral chapters on contemporary topics, such as the internationalization of services, distributive industries, and agro-business. Indeed, through the s and beyond, Dicken continued to research and publish widely on the interrelationship between the transnational corporation and the nation-state in making the economic geography of regions and the locale. Dicken continued to argue that national governments did advocate agency in globalization in their interrelationships with firms, regulators, and other actors.
This actor-focused approach to explain the processes and patterns of global economic restructuring and change intersected very much with the economic sociologists notions of embeddedness and social action.
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Dicken, therefore, was highly influential in bringing the study of transnational corporation's organizational networks onto the agendas of economic geography from the early s. Concepts of social action and economic embeddedness are very important facets of these relationships especially when theorized in the scalars of globalization, from the local to the global. But, moreover, Global Shift , in combination with his latter work on Global Production Networks , makes a significant contribution to understanding the complexities and unevenness of globalization per se.
It is more than just a body of knowledge; science is a way of thinking that provides a means to evaluate and create new knowledge without bias. At its best, science uses objective evidence over subjective evidence to reach sound and logical conclusions. Truth in science is a difficult concept, and this is because science is falsifiable, which means an initial explanation hypothesis is testable and able to be proven false.
A scientific theory can never completely be proven correct; it is only after exhaustive attempts to falsify competing for ideas and variations that the theory is assumed to be true. While it may seem like a weakness, the strength behind this is that all scientific ideas have stood up to scrutiny, which is not necessarily true for non-scientific ideas and procedures. In fact, it is the ability to prove current ideas wrong that is a driving force in science and has driven many scientific careers. Western science began in ancient Greece, specifically Athens, and early democracies like Athens encouraged individuals to think more independently than the in past when kings ruled most civilizations.
Aristotle was a student of Plato and a tutor to Alexander the Great, who would conquer the Persian Empire as far as India, spreading Greek culture in the process. Aristotle used deductive reasoning, applying what he thought he knew to establish a new idea if A, then B.
Chapter 1: Introduction to Physical Geography
Deductive reasoning starts with generalized principles or established or assumed knowledge and extends them to new ideas or conclusions. If a deductive conclusion is derived from sound principles, then the conclusion has a high degree of certainty. This contrasts with inductive reasoning which begins from new observations and attempts to discern the underlying principles that explain the observations. Inductive reasoning relies on evidence to infer a conclusion and does not have the perceived certainty of deductive reasoning. Both are important in science.
Scientists take existing principles and laws and see if these explain observations.
Also, they make new observations and seek to determine the principles and laws that underlie them. Both emphasize the two most important aspects of science: observations and inferences. Greek culture was absorbed by the Romans. The Romans controlled people and resources in their Empire by building an infrastructure of roads, bridges, and aqueducts. Their road network helped spread Greek culture and knowledge throughout the Empire. The fall of the Roman Empire ushered in the Medieval period in Europe in which scientific progress in Europe was largely overlooked.
Empirical experimentation grew during this time and was a key component of the scientific revolution that started in 17th century Europe. Empiricism emphasizes the value of evidence gained from experimentation and observations of the senses. The Aristotelian approach came under criticism by 17th-century scholars of the Renaissance. As science progressed, certain aspects of science that could not be experimented and sensed awaited the development of new technologies, such as atoms, molecules, and the deep-time of geology.
The Renaissance, following the Medieval period between the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries, was a great awakening of artistic and scientific thought and expression in Europe. The foundational example of the modern scientific approach is the understanding of the solar system. The Greek astronomer Claudius Ptolemy, in the second century, using an Aristotelian approach and mathematics, observed the Sun, Moon, and stars moving across the sky and deductively reasoned that Earth must be at the center of the universe with the celestial bodies circling Earth.
Ptolemy even had mathematical, astronomical calculations that supported his argument. The view of the cosmos with Earth at its center is called the geocentric model. In contrast, early Renaissance scholars used new instruments such as the telescope to enhance astronomical observations and developed new mathematics to explain those observations. These scholars proposed a radically new understanding of the cosmos, one in which Earth and the other planets orbited around the centrally located Sun.
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This is known as the heliocentric model, and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus was the first to offer a solid mathematical explanation for it around Science and scientists are wary of situations which either discourage or avoid the process of falsifiability. If a statement or an explanation of a phenomenon cannot be tested or does not meet scientific standards, then it is not considered science, but instead is considered a pseudoscience.
Falsifiability separates science from pseudoscience.
Chapter 1: Introduction to Physical Geography – Introduction to Physical Geography
Pseudoscience is a collection of ideas that may appear scientific but does not use the scientific method. An example of pseudoscience is astrology which is a belief system that the movement of celestial bodies influences human behavior. This is not to be confused with astronomy which is the scientific study of celestial bodies and the cosmos.
There are many celestial observations associated with astrology, but astrology does not use the scientific method. Conclusions in astrology are not based on evidence and experiments, and its statements are not falsifiable. Science is also a social process. Scientists share their ideas with peers at conferences for guidance and feedback. Research results are not allowed to be published by a reputable journal or publishing house until other scientists who are experts in the field have determined that the methods are scientifically sound and the conclusions are reasonable.
Thus, the scientific process is slow, cautious, and conservative. Scientists do not jump to conclusions, but wait until an overwhelming amount of evidence from many independent researchers points to the same conclusion before accepting a scientific concept.